Glossary of terms and abbreviations

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Term Definition
AdenomyosisA condition of the uterus where the endometrium (cells that line the inside of the uterine body) also grow into the myometrium (wall of the uterus). A condition of the uterus where the endometrium (cells that line the inside of the uterine body) also grow into the myometrium (wall of the uterus).
Adequate colposcopyThe cervix is clearly seen and not obscured by blood, by inflammation or scarringThe cervix is clearly seen and not obscured by blood, inflammation or scarring. The cervix is clearly seen and not obscured by blood, inflammation or scarring.
ASC-HAtypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesionIn the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion
In the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSILPossible HSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASC-H in US Bethesda system.) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System.
ASC-USAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significance Atypical squamous cells, undetermined significance
In the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Equivalent to possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSILPossible LSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUS in US Bethesda system.) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System.
ASCUSAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significanceIn the previous versions of the US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Included lesions equivalent to both possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSIL) and possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Later versions (including the current version) of the Bethesda System split this category into ASC-H and ASC-US. Atypical squamous cells, undetermined significance

In the previous versions of the US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Included lesions equivalent to both possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSILPossible LSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUS in US Bethesda system.) and possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSILPossible HSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASC-H in US Bethesda system.) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Later versions (including the current version) of the Bethesda System split this category into ASC-HAtypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesionIn the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. and ASC-USAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significance.

BiopsyRemoval of tissue for medical examination. Removal of tissue for medical examination.
BNABorderline nuclear abnormalities (British Society for Clinical Cytology)Post 2008: considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASC-US) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to possible LSIL (pLSIL) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting systemPre 2009: included atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) and border line changes in endocervical cells. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157) Borderline nuclear abnormalities (British Society for Clinical Cytology)
Post 2008: considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASC-USAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significance) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to possible LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. (pLSILPossible LSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUS in US Bethesda system.) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system
Pre 2009: included atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology). (ASC-HAtypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesionIn the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System.) and border line changes in endocervical cells. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157)
BMDBorderline or mild dyskaryosis considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the Bethesda reporting system and possible LSIL (pLSIL) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system. Borderline or mild dyskaryosis considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASCUSAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significanceIn the previous versions of the US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Included lesions equivalent to both possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSIL) and possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Later versions (including the current version) of the Bethesda System split this category into ASC-H and ASC-US.) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category.) in the Bethesda reporting system and possible LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. (pLSILPossible LSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUS in US Bethesda system.) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system
CD4 countThe number of CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) per cubic millimetre of blood, a measure of immune system function. The number of CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) per cubic millimetre of blood, a measure of immune system function.
CINCervical Intraepithelial NeoplasiaRefers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix that are seen using a microscope (i.e. histologically-confirmed).CIN 1 – Mild dysplasiaCIN 2 – Moderate dysplasiaCIN 3 – Severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ(The term CIN 2+ refers to CIN 2, 3, or invasive cervical cancer; CIN3+ refers to CIN 3 or invasive cervical cancer)CIN 2/3 refers to CIN 2 or CIN 3. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix that are seen using a microscope (i.e. histologically-confirmed).
CIN1mild dysplasia – mild dysplasia
CIN2 – moderate dysplasia
CIN 3Severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ (The term CIN 2+ refers to CIN 2, 3, or invasive cervical cancer; CIN3+ refers to CIN 3 or invasive cervical cancer) – severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ

(The term CIN2+ refers to CIN2,3, or invasive cervical cancer; CIN3+ refers to CIN3 or invasive cervical cancer)
CIN2/3 refers to CIN2 or CIN3.

Cumulative incidence rateThe cumulative incidence rate is a cumulative hazard for a specific disease and should be distinguished from crude (or absolute) risk. The cumulative incidence rate is a cumulative hazard for a specific disease and should be distinguished from crude (or absolute) risk.
CKCCold-knife conisation (cold-knife cone biopsy) is the removal of cone shaped piece of tissue from the cervix using a scalpel. Cold-knife conisation (cold-knife cone biopsy) is the removal of cone shaped piece of tissue from the cervix using a scalpel.
CoagulopathyCoagulopathy is a condition in which the blood’s ability to coagulate (clot) is impaired. CoagulopathyCoagulopathy is a condition in which the blood’s ability to coagulate (clot) is impaired. is a condition in which the blood’s ability to coagulate (clot) is impaired.
Cohorts offered vaccinationWomen who were part of a cohort who were offered vaccination as pre-adolescents (12-13 years), in the context of the National HPV Vaccination Program as implemented in Australia. Specifically, we modelled a cohort of women born in 1997 who were offered vaccination as 12 year olds in 2009. This is the same cohort that was analysed in the Economic Evaluation of the Renewal report. Women who were part of a cohort who were offered vaccination as pre-adolescents (12-13 years), in the context of the National HPV Vaccination Program as implemented in Australia. Specifically, we modelled a cohort of women born in 1997 who were offered vaccination as 12 year olds in 2009. This is the same cohort that was analysed in the Economic Evaluation of the Renewal report.
ColposcopyThe examination of the cervix and vagina with a magnifying instrument called a colposcope, to check for abnormalities. The examination of the cervix and vagina with a magnifying instrument called a colposcope, to check for abnormalities.
ColposcopistsHealth professionals, usually gynaecologists, trained to perform colposcopy. Health professionals, usually gynaecologists, trained to perform colposcopy.
Columnar epitheliumEpithelium whose cells are of much greater height than width. i.e.endocervical epitheliumEpithelium which has cells of much greater height than width i.e. endocervical epithelium. Epithelium which has cells of much greater height than width i.e. endocervical epithelium.
Congenital anomalyA structural or functional abnormality (anomaly) that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified prenatally, at birth or later in life. Congenital anomalyA structural or functional abnormality (anomaly) that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified prenatally, at birth or later in life. is a structural or functional abnormality (anomaly) that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified prenatally, at birth or later in life.
Congenital TZCongenital transformation zoneDuring early embryonic life, the cuboidal epithelium of the vaginal tube is replaced by the squamous epithelium, which begins at the caudal end of the dorsal urogenital sinus. This process is completed well before birth and the entire length of vagina and the ectocervix is meant to be covered by squamous epithelium. This process proceeds very rapidly along the lateral walls, and later in the anterior and posterior vaginal walls. If the epithelialization proceeds normally, the original squamocolumnar junction will be located at the external os at birth. On the other hand, if this process is arrested for some reason or incomplete, the original squamocolumnar junction will be located distal to the external os or may rarely be located on the vaginal walls, particularly involving the anterior and posterior fornices. The cuboidal epithelium remaining here will undergo squamous metaplasia. This late conversion to squamous epithelium in the anterior and posterior vaginal walls, as well as the ectocervix, results in the formation of the congenital transformation zone. Thus, it is a variant of intrauterine squamous metaplasia, in which differentiation of the squamous epithelium is not fully completed due to an interference with normal maturation. Excessive maturation is seen on the surface (as evidenced by keratinization) with delayed, incomplete maturation in deeper layers. Clinically, it may be seen as an extensive whitish-grey, hyperkeratotic area extending from the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix to the vaginal fornices. Gradual maturation of the epithelium may occur over several years. This type of transformation zone is seen in less than 5 % of women and is a variant of the normal transformation zone. Congenital transformation zone
During early embryonic life, the cuboidal epithelium of the vaginal tube is replaced by the squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane., which begins at the caudal end of the dorsal urogenital sinus. This process is completed well before birth and the entire length of vagina and the ectocervix is meant to be covered by squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane.. This process proceeds very rapidly along the lateral walls, and later in the anterior and posterior vaginal walls. If the epithelialization proceeds normally, the original squamocolumnar junctionThis is the junction where the ectocervical squamous epithelium and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal. will be located at the external os at birth. On the other hand, if this process is arrested for some reason or incomplete, the original squamocolumnar junctionThis is the junction where the ectocervical squamous epithelium and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal. will be located distal to the external os or may rarely be located on the vaginal walls, particularly involving the anterior and posterior fornices. The cuboidal epithelium remaining here will undergo squamous metaplasiaIn the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium.. This late conversion to squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. in the anterior and posterior vaginal walls, as well as the ectocervix, results in the formation of the congenital transformation zone. Thus, it is a variant of intrauterine squamous metaplasiaIn the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium., in which differentiation of the squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. is not fully completed due to an interference with normal maturation. Excessive maturation is seen on the surface (as evidenced by keratinization) with delayed, incomplete maturation in deeper layers. Clinically, it may be seen as an extensive whitish-grey, hyperkeratotic area extending from the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix to the vaginal fornices. Gradual maturation of the epithelium may occur over several years. This type of transformation zone is seen in less than 5 % of women and is a variant of the normal transformation zone.
CondylomaA ‘knob like’ or warty growth on the genitals caused by an infection with the human papillomavirus. A ‘knob like’ or warty growth on the genitals caused by an infection with the human papillomavirus.
Cost-effectivenessA cost-effectiveness evaluation is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative gain in effectiveness and relative gain in costs of two or more possible scenarios. A cost-effectiveness evaluation is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative gain in effectiveness and relative gain in costs of two or more possible scenarios
CO2 LaserCarbon Dioxide Laser is a gas laser ( based on a gas medium containing Carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, some hydrogen, water vapour and/or xenon) that is used in cervical ablation, cervical conisation and ablation of genital condyloma (warts). Carbon Dioxide Laser
A gas laser (based on a gas medium containing carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, some hydrogen, water vapour and/or xenon) that is used in cervical ablation, cervical conisation and ablation of genital condyloma (warts).
Co-testHPV test and LBC both requested and performed on a cervical sample. HPV test and LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. both requested and performed on a cervical sample.
Co-testingHPV test and LBC both requested and performed on a cervical sample. HPV test and LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. both requested and performed on a cervical sample.
CryotherapyThe use of extreme cold in surgery. Used in treatment of cervix with specially designed cryoprobe, but use limited to low resource countries The use of extreme cold in surgery. Used in treatment of cervix with specially designed cryoprobe, but its use is limited to low resource countries.
CyanosisA bluish discolouration of the skin due to poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood. A bluish discolouration of the skin due to poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
CytobroomCytobroom is a plastic broom–shaped device used to sample cells from the cervix. A plastic broom-shaped device used to sample cells from the cervix.
DeciduosisDeciduosis is used to describe a visual change on the cervix that is seen commonly in pregnancy, characterised by multiple small, yellow/red elevations of cervical mucosa. A visual change on the cervix that is seen commonly in pregnancy, characterised by multiple small, yellow/red elevations of cervical mucosa.
Diathermy pointStraight wire excision of the transformation zone (SWETZ) or needle excision of the transformation zone (NETZ). Straight wire excision of the transformation zone (SWETZStraight wire excision of the transformation zone) or needle excision of the transformation zone (NETZNeedle Excision of the Transformation Zone).
Discounted costsDiscounted costs represent the total predicted cost associated with cervical cancer screening for the lifetime of a woman, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs). Discounted costsDiscounted costs represent the total predicted cost associated with cervical cancer screening for the lifetime of a woman, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs). represent the total predicted cost associated with cervical cancer screening for the lifetime of a woman, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs).
Discounted life–yearsDiscounted life–years represent the predicted probability of remaining alive each year after birth, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs). Discounted life–yearsDiscounted life–years represent the predicted probability of remaining alive each year after birth, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs). represent the predicted probability of remaining alive each year after birth, which is discounted by 5% per year after the age of 12 years (the age at which the earlier intervention, vaccination, occurs).
DysplasiaDysplasia is an epithelial abnormality of growth and differentiation. Categorised as mild, moderate and severe and correlates with CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3. DysplasiaDysplasia is an epithelial abnormality of growth and differentiation. Categorised as mild, moderate and severe and correlates with CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3. is an abnormality of epithelial growth and differentiation. Categorised as mild, moderate and severe and correlates with CIN1mild dysplasia, CIN2 and CIN3.
Dynamic modelA dynamic model captures time-dependent changes in the state of the system, which is in contrast to a static model, which is time-independent. For instance, the change in the number of infected women over time due to vaccination may influence the rate of new infections due to herd immunity, and cannot be captured through a static model. A dynamic model captures time-dependent changes in the state of the system, which is in contrast to a static model, which is time-independent. For instance, the change in the number of infected women over time due to vaccination may influence the rate of new infections due to herd immunity, and cannot be captured through a static model.
EctopyCervical ectopy or ectropion is a condition in which the endocervical columnar epithelium protrudes through the external cervical os and onto the vaginal portion of the cervix. Cervical ectopy or ectropion is a condition in which the endocervical columnar epithelium protrudes through the external cervical os and onto the vaginal portion of the cervix.
ECCEndocervical curettageThe removal of tissue from the endocervical canal of the cervix.The removal of tissue from the endocervical canal of the cervix Endocervical curettage: The removal of tissue from the endocervical canal of the cervix.
EndometriosisEndometriosis occurs when the endometrium is found in abnormal sites around the body, most commonly in extrauterine sites in the pelvis. A condition when the endometrium is found in abnormal sites around the body, most commonly in extrauterine sites in the pelvis.
Exophytic lesionExophytic lesion is one that grows outwards from an epithelial surface. A lesion that grows outwards from an epithelial surface.
Experienced colposcopistAn experienced colposcopist is usually considered to be one who is, or has been, associated with a tertiary referral centre and has experience in the management of patients with complex problems. An experienced colposcopist is usually considered to be one who is, or has been, associated with a tertiary referral centre and has experience in the management of patients with complex problems.
Fischer coneThe Fischer cone is a conisation specimen obtained by using a Fischer cone biopsy excisor, and uses similar electrosurgical technology as used in loop excision procedures. The Fischer coneThe Fischer cone is a conisation specimen obtained by using a Fischer cone biopsy excisor, and uses similar electrosurgical technology as used in loop excision procedures. is a conisation specimen obtained by using a Fischer coneThe Fischer cone is a conisation specimen obtained by using a Fischer cone biopsy excisor, and uses similar electrosurgical technology as used in loop excision procedures. biopsy excisor, and uses similar electrosurgical technology as used in loop excision procedures.
Gynaecological oncologistA gynaecological oncologist is a gynaecologist who has received special training in the management of gential tract cancer in women and has been certified by the RANZCOG: Certified Gynaecological Oncologist (CGO) A gynaecological oncologist is a gynaecologist who has received special training in the management of genital tract cancer in women and has been certified by the RANZCOGThe Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: Certified Gynaecological Oncologist (CGO).
HPV 16/18Only HPV types 16 and or 18 detected using routine HPV screening tests in laboratory. Only HPV types 16 and or 18 detected using routine HPV screening tests in laboratory
HPV not 16/18 Oncogenic HPV typesOncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66. other than 16 and/or 18 detected using routine HPV screening tests in laboratory.
HPV any type Oncogenic HPV typesOncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66. detected using routine HPV screening tests in laboratory.
HPV positiveWomen with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory. Women with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory.
HPV detectedWomen with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory. Women with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory.
HPV negativeWomen in whom oncogenic HPV types are not detected by the HPV testing platform. Women in whom oncogenic HPV types are not detected by the HPV testing platform.
HPV not detectedOncogenic HPV types not detected by the HPV testing platform. Oncogenic HPV typesOncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66. not detected by the HPV testing platform.
Hr-HPV typeHPV types associated with high risk of cervical high grade precancerous lesions and cancer. HPV types associated with high risk of cervical high grade precancerous lesions and cancer.
HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology). High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. In the Australian context, HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology). is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBSAustralian Modified Bethesda System 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology).-CIN2 or HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology).-CIN3 as per LASTLower Anogenital Squamous Terminology terminology).
HysterectomyHysterectomy (total) is the complete surgical removal of the uterus including the cervix. (total) Complete surgical removal of the uterus including the cervix.
LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. Liquid based cytology (LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory.) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory.
Intermenstrual bleeding Vaginal bleeding at any time other than during normal menstruation or following sexual intercourse.
LeiomyomaLeiomyoma is a benign tumour arising from the smooth muscle of the uterus, commonly known as a fibroid LeiomyomaLeiomyoma is a benign tumour arising from the smooth muscle of the uterus, commonly known as a fibroid is a benign tumour arising from the smooth muscle of the uterus, commonly known as a fibroid.
Loop diathermyLoop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEPLoop electrical excision procedureLoop electrical excision procedure) or large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZLarge loop excision of the transformation zone).
LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. In the Australian context, LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a low grade precancerous lesion (AMBSAustralian Modified Bethesda System 2004), or histologically confirmed low grade precancerous lesion (LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category.HPVHuman papillomavirus, LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. –condyloma and LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category.CIN1mild dysplasia as per LASTLower Anogenital Squamous Terminology terminology).
Lympho-vascular space invasionThis is the spread of malignant cells from a cancer, to the blood vessels or lymphatics. In the cervix it is described most commonly in early invasive disease and is important in determining the need for further treatment in superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The spread of malignant cells from a cancer, to the blood vessels or lymphatics. In the cervix it is described most commonly in early invasive disease and is important in determining the need for further treatment in superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
Metaplastic squamous epitheliumMetaplasia is a non-neoplastic transformation of one mature cell type to another type that is not normally present at that location. In the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium. Metaplasia is a non-neoplastic transformation of one mature cell type to another type that is not normally present at that location. In the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane., described as metaplastic squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane..
Mild dyskaryosisMild dyskaryosis (British Society for Clinical Cytology) considered equivalent to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to definite LSIL in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system; renamed Low-grade dyskaryosis in 2008. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157) Mild dyskaryosisMild dyskaryosis (British Society for Clinical Cytology) considered equivalent to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to definite LSIL in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system; renamed Low-grade dyskaryosis in 2008. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157) (British Society for Clinical Cytology) considered equivalent to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category.) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to definite LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system; renamed Low-grade dyskaryosis in 2008. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157)
Multi-HPV-type modelA model which takes into account different rates of progression and regression of infection/CIN caused by different HPV types (for instance, CIN caused by HPV 16 is less likely to regress, and more likely to progress, than CIN caused by other HPV types). A model which takes into account different rates of progression and regression of infection/CIN caused by different HPV types (for instance, CIN caused by HPV 16 is less likely to regress, and more likely to progress, than CIN caused by other HPV types)
Multiple-cohort modelA multiple-cohort model can simulate outcomes for cohorts born at different ages A multiple-cohort model can simulate outcomes for cohorts born at different ages
Nabothian cystsThis is a mucus filled cyst on the surface of the cervix and is a normal finding A mucus filled cyst on the surface of the cervix (this is a normal finding)
NCSPNational Cervical Screening ProgramA joint program of the Australian, state and territory governments. It aims to reduce morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, in a cost-effective manner through an organised approach to cervical screening. The program encourages women in the target population to have regular Pap smears. National Cervical Screening Program
A joint program of the Australian, state and territory governments. It aims to reduce morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, in a cost-effective manner through an organised approach to cervical screening. The program encourages women in the target population to have regular cervical screening.
Needle excisionStraight wire excision of the transformation zone (SWETZ) or needle excision of the transformation zone (NETZ). Straight wire excision of the transformation zone (SWETZStraight wire excision of the transformation zone) or needle excision of the transformation zone (NETZNeedle Excision of the Transformation Zone).
NecrosisNecrosis the death of living cells and tissues. The death of living cells and tissues.
Negative colposcopyA colposcopy in which no abnormalities are seen: it does not include the subsequent reports on any biopsy taken. Also called a ‘normal’ colposcopy and implies that the entire transformation zone of the cervix is visible. A colposcopy in which no abnormalities are seen: it does not include the subsequent reports on any biopsy taken. Also called a ‘normal’ colposcopy and implies that the entire transformation zone of the cervix is visible.
Negative co-testOncogenic HPV types not detected and LBC negative. Oncogenic HPV typesOncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66. not detected and LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. negative.
Normal cervical screening historyWomen who have participated in the NCSP with no detected abnormalities. Women who have participated in the NCSPNational Cervical Screening ProgramA joint program of the Australian, state and territory governments. It aims to reduce morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, in a cost-effective manner through an organised approach to cervical screening. The program encourages women in the target population to have regular Pap smears. with no detected abnormalities.
NPVNegative predictive value (NPV) is the probability that a negative test result is a true negative Negative predictive value: the probability that a negative test result is a true negative.
OedemaA condition characterised by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the tissues or cavities of the body. A condition characterised by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the tissues or cavities of the body.
Oncogenic HPVPotentially cancer-causing HPV DNA types, pathogenically linked to intraepithelial neoplasia–e.g. of the uterine cervix–(termed CIN) Potentially cancer-causing HPV DNA types, pathogenically linked to intraepithelial neoplasia – e.g. of the uterine cervix (termed CINCervical Intraepithelial NeoplasiaRefers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix that are seen using a microscope (i.e. histologically-confirmed).CIN 1 – Mild dysplasiaCIN 2 – Moderate dysplasiaCIN 3 – Severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ(The term CIN 2+ refers to CIN 2, 3, or invasive cervical cancer; CIN3+ refers to CIN 3 or invasive cervical cancer)CIN 2/3 refers to CIN 2 or CIN 3.)
Oncogenic HPV typesOncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66. Oncogenic HPV are HPV types considered capable of causing cancer. Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are included in tests suitable for cervical screening. Some tests also detect type 66.
Partial HPV genotypingTesting for subgroups of high risk HPV types eg types 16 or 18. Testing for subgroups of high risk HPV types e.g. types 16 or 18
PCBPostcoital bleedingVaginal bleeding after intercourse Postcoital bleeding
Vaginal bleeding after intercourse.
pHSILPossible HSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASC-H in US Bethesda system. Possible HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology). in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASC-HAtypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesionIn the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. in US Bethesda system.
pLSILPossible LSIL in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUS in US Bethesda system. Possible LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. in the Australian Modified Bethesda System is broadly equivalent to ASCUSAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significanceIn the previous versions of the US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Included lesions equivalent to both possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSIL) and possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Later versions (including the current version) of the Bethesda System split this category into ASC-H and ASC-US. in US Bethesda system.
Polyp (ectocervical/endocervical) inflammationA polyp is a small protrusion of tissue that looks like a ball on the end of a slim stalk, and can be visible on the cervix, usually arising from the endocervical or endometrial tissue of uterus. Polyps are usually not neoplastic but can unusually be neoplastic or cancerous. A polyp is a small protrusion of tissue that looks like a ball on the end of a slim stalk, and can be visible on the cervix, usually arising from the endocervical or endometrial tissue of uterus. Polyps are usually not neoplastic but can unusually be neoplastic or cancerous.
Positive oncogenic HPV (16/18)Women with a positive HPV test result of HPV types 16 and/or 18 detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory. Women with a positive HPV test result of HPV types 16 and/or 18 detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory.
Positive oncogenic HPV (not 16/18)Women with a positive HPV test result of other oncogenic HPV types other than types 16 and 18 detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory.Women with a positive HPV test result of other oncogenic HPV types not including types 16 and 18 detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory. Women with a positive HPV test result of other oncogenic HPV types other than types 16 and 18 detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory.
Positive oncogenic HPV (any type)Women with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory.Women with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory. Women with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using routine HPV testing in a pathology laboratory.
Profiled electrosurgical excisionThis type of excision uses a specific type of ‘loop’ that can be inserted into the cervical canal and allows for a rotational excision of a ‘cone’ shaped piece of tissue This type of excision uses a specific type of ‘loop’ that can be inserted into the cervical canal and allows for a rotational excision of a ‘cone’ shaped piece of tissue.
Reflex cytologyReflex cytology refers to the automatic performance of a cytological examination of a liquid based cervical sample that has tested positive for oncogenic HPV types, determined by the pathologist. Reflex cytologyReflex cytology refers to the automatic performance of a cytological examination of a liquid based cervical sample that has tested positive for oncogenic HPV types, determined by the pathologist. refers to the automatic performance of a cytological examination of a liquid based cervical sample that has tested positive for oncogenic HPV types, determined by the pathologist.
Reflex LBCReflex liquid-based cytologyA test performed on a liquid-based cytology sample when there is a positive oncogenic HPV test result. Reflex LBC may allow for the triage of women along different pathways, negative, LSIL and HSIL, glandular. For women who have HPV16 and/or 18, and who are being referred directly to colposcopy, the reflex LBC result would inform the colposcopic assessment. Reflex liquid-based cytology LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. (cytology)
A test performed on a liquid-based cytology sample when there is a positive oncogenic HPV test result. Reflex LBCReflex liquid-based cytologyA test performed on a liquid-based cytology sample when there is a positive oncogenic HPV test result. Reflex LBC may allow for the triage of women along different pathways, negative, LSIL and HSIL, glandular. For women who have HPV16 and/or 18, and who are being referred directly to colposcopy, the reflex LBC result would inform the colposcopic assessment. may allow for the triage of women along different pathways, negative, LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. and HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology)., glandular. For women who have HPV16 and/or 18, and who are being referred directly to colposcopy, the reflex LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. result would inform the colposcopic assessment.
RegistryA database of identifiable persons containing defined demographic and health information, established for a specific purpose. In the case of cervical screening or other cancer screening registers, the purpose includes inviting eligible persons for screening, sending reminders when they are overdue for screening, follow up of abnormalities, statistical reporting and research. A database of identifiable persons containing defined demographic and health information, established for a specific purpose. In the case of cervical screening or other cancer screening registers, the purpose includes inviting eligible persons for screening, sending reminders when they are overdue for screening, follow up of abnormalities, statistical reporting and research.
RegisterA database of identifiable persons containing defined demographic and health information, established for a specific purpose. In the case of cervical screening or other cancer screening registers, the purpose includes inviting eligible persons for screening, sending reminders when they are overdue for screening, follow up of abnormalities, statistical reporting and research. A database of identifiable persons containing defined demographic and health information, established for a specific purpose. In the case of cervical screening or other cancer screening registers, the purpose includes inviting eligible persons for screening, sending reminders when they are overdue for screening, follow up of abnormalities, statistical reporting and research.
Sexual activitySexual intercourse, oral sexual contact or genital skin–to–skin contact. Sexual intercourse, oral sexual contact or genital skin-to-skin contact.
SILA squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells. A squamous intraepithelial lesion (SILA squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells.) is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells.
SISCCASuperficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (previously termed 'Micro-invasive carcinoma') Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (previously termed micro-invasive carcinoma).
Squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. In the cervix and the vagina this is a stratified squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane.
Squamocolumnar junctionThis is the junction where the ectocervical squamous epithelium and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal. The junction where the ectocervical squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal.
Squamous metaplasiaIn the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium. In the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane., described as metaplastic squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane..
StenosisA narrowing of a cylindrical canal. A narrowing of a cylindrical canal.
SubclinicalNot clinically apparent. Not clinically apparent.
Thermal coagulationAlso known as Semm or 'Cold'coagulation Also known as 'Semm' or ‘Cold’ coagulation.
Triage cytologyThe results of liquid based cytology are used to determine the optimum management. The results of liquid based cytology are used to determine the optimum management.
TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. Transformation zone
This region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epitheliumIn the cervix and the vagina this is actually a stratified squamous epithelium, that consists of layers of cells arranged in layers on a basement membrane. is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junctionThis is the junction where the ectocervical squamous epithelium and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal. at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasiaIn the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium. has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junctionThis is the junction where the ectocervical squamous epithelium and the endocervical columnar epithelium meet, and may be located on the visible ectocervix or may be within the endocervical canal.. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.

The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasiaIn the cervix this refers to the transformation of endocervical columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium, described as metaplastic squamous epithelium. along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone.


Type 1 TZType 1 TZ: the whole TZ including all the upper limit is ectocervical: the whole TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. including all the upper limit is ectocervical
Type 2 TZType 2 TZ: the upper limit of the TZ is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees: the upper limit of the TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees
Type 3 TZType 3 TZ: part or the entire upper limit of the TZ cannot be seen in the canal: part or the entire upper limit of the TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. cannot be seen in the canal.

Type 1 excisionType 1 excision (for Type1 TZ): Usually to 8mm and not more than 10mm length of cervical tissue excised. (for Type 1 TZType 1 TZ: the whole TZ including all the upper limit is ectocervical): usually to 8mm and not more than 10mm length of cervical tissue excised
Type 2 excisionType 2 excision (for Type 2 TZ): Not more than 15mm length of tissue excised (for Type 2 TZType 2 TZ: the upper limit of the TZ is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees): not more than 15mm length of tissue excised
Type 3 excisionType 3 excision (for Type 3 TZ) Equivalent to ‘cone biopsy’ and >15mm length (for Type 3 TZType 3 TZ: part or the entire upper limit of the TZ cannot be seen in the canal): equivalent to ‘cone biopsy’ and >15mm length.

Type 1 TZType 1 TZ: the whole TZ including all the upper limit is ectocervical The whole TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. including all the upper limit is ectocervical.
Type 1 excisionType 1 excision (for Type1 TZ): Usually to 8mm and not more than 10mm length of cervical tissue excised. Type 1 excisionType 1 excision (for Type1 TZ): Usually to 8mm and not more than 10mm length of cervical tissue excised. (for Type 1 TZType 1 TZ: the whole TZ including all the upper limit is ectocervical): usually to 8mm and not more than 10mm length of cervical tissue excised.
Type 2 TZType 2 TZ: the upper limit of the TZ is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees The upper limit of the TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees.
Type 2 excisionType 2 excision (for Type 2 TZ): Not more than 15mm length of tissue excised Type 2 excisionType 2 excision (for Type 2 TZ): Not more than 15mm length of tissue excised (for Type 2 TZType 2 TZ: the upper limit of the TZ is partly or wholly visible in the canal and is completely visible around 360 degrees): Not more than 15mm length of tissue excised.
Type 3 excisionType 3 excision (for Type 3 TZ) Equivalent to ‘cone biopsy’ and >15mm length Type 3 excisionType 3 excision (for Type 3 TZ) Equivalent to ‘cone biopsy’ and >15mm length (for Type 3 TZType 3 TZ: part or the entire upper limit of the TZ cannot be seen in the canal): Equivalent to 'cone biopsy' and > 15mm length.
UlcerationThe loss of a small or large portion of a surface epithelium, leading to a ‘raw’ area. Can be caused by local trauma, inflammation and cancer. The loss of a small or large portion of a surface epithelium, leading to a ‘raw’ area. Can be caused by local trauma, inflammation and cancer.
Under-screenedWomen who are over 30 years of age and are 2 or more years overdue for their routine 5-yearly cervical screening test. Women who are over 30 years of age and are 2 or more years overdue for their routine 5-yearly cervical screening test.
Unvaccinated cohortsWomen who were not offered HPV vaccination, and who experience no herd immunity effects from the National HPV Vaccination Program. Women who were not offered HPV vaccination, and who experience no herd immunity effects from the National HPV Vaccination Program.
Vaginal stenosisNarrowing of the vagina. Narrowing of the vagina.
Less than or equal to Less than or equal to
Greater than or equal to Greater than or equal to

Glossary - List of common abbreviations and acronyms

Glossary - List of common abbreviations and acronyms download iconDownload

Term/Abbreviation Association
AGCAtypical glandular cells Atypical glandular cells
AGUSAtypical glandular cells of undetermined significance Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance
AIHWAustralian Institute of Health and Welfare Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
AINAnal intra-epithelial neoplasia Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia
AISAdenocarcinoma in situ Adenocarcinoma in situ
AMBSAustralian Modified Bethesda System Australian Modified Bethesda System
ASCCPAustralian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Australian Society for ColposcopyThe examination of the cervix and vagina with a magnifying instrument called a colposcope, to check for abnormalities. and Cervical Pathology
ASC-HAtypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesionIn the standard US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion. Equivalent to possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Atypical squamous cells, possible high-grade lesion
ASCUSAtypical squamous cells, undetermined significanceIn the previous versions of the US Bethesda System, a category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: The nature of the abnormality is uncertain or unequivocal. Included lesions equivalent to both possible low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pLSIL) and possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL) in the Australian Modified Bethesda System. Later versions (including the current version) of the Bethesda System split this category into ASC-H and ASC-US. Atypical squamous cells, undetermined significance
ASRAge-standardised to the Australian population Age-standardised to the Australian population
ASRWAge-standardised to the World Standard population Age-standardised to the world standard population
BNABorderline nuclear abnormalities (British Society for Clinical Cytology)Post 2008: considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASC-US) in the Bethesda 2001 reporting system considered equivalent to possible LSIL (pLSIL) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting systemPre 2009: included atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) and border line changes in endocervical cells. (Denton KJ et al., (2008) The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology 19: 137-157) Borderline nuclear abnormalities (British Society for Clinical Cytology)
BMDBorderline or mild dyskaryosis considered equivalent to atypical squamous cell, undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the Bethesda reporting system and possible LSIL (pLSIL) in the Australian modified Bethesda reporting system. Borderline or mild dyskaryosis
CCCClear cell carcinoma Clear cell carcinoma
CGINCervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia–not used in Australia Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia
CINCervical Intraepithelial NeoplasiaRefers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix that are seen using a microscope (i.e. histologically-confirmed).CIN 1 – Mild dysplasiaCIN 2 – Moderate dysplasiaCIN 3 – Severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ(The term CIN 2+ refers to CIN 2, 3, or invasive cervical cancer; CIN3+ refers to CIN 3 or invasive cervical cancer)CIN 2/3 refers to CIN 2 or CIN 3. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
CIN1mild dysplasia Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1
CIN2 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2
CIN3 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3
CIN2/3 Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3
CIRThe cumulative incidence rate is a cumulative hazard for a specific disease and should be distinguished from crude (or absolute) risk. Cumulative incidence rates
CKCCold-knife conisation (cold-knife cone biopsy) is the removal of cone shaped piece of tissue from the cervix using a scalpel. Cold-knife conisation
DCVDirect colposcopic vision Direct colposcopic vision
DESDiethylstilbestrol Diethylstilboestrol
ECCEndocervical curettageThe removal of tissue from the endocervical canal of the cervix.The removal of tissue from the endocervical canal of the cervix Endocervical curettage
FIGOThe International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
FUFollow-up Follow-up
HGGAHigh-grade glandular atypia High-grade glandular atypia
HGGLHigh-grade glandular lesion High-grade glandular lesion
HPVHuman papillomavirus Human papillomavirus
HPV 16/18Only HPV types 16 and or 18 detected using routine HPV screening tests in laboratory. HPV types 16 and/or 18
HPV +veWomen with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory. (any type) HPV positiveWomen with a positive HPV test result of any oncogenic HPV types detected using HPV testing platforms in a pathology laboratory. (any oncogenic type)
HPV –veWomen in whom oncogenic HPV types are not detected by the HPV testing platform. HPV negativeWomen in whom oncogenic HPV types are not detected by the HPV testing platform.
Hr-HPVHuman papillomavirus High-risk human papillomavirus
HSILHigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionIn the Australian context, HSIL is used to refer to a cytology predictive of a high grade precancerous lesion (AMBS 2004), or histologically confirmed high grade precancerous lesion (HSIL-CIN2 or HSIL-CIN3 as per LAST terminology). High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
IARCInternational Agency for Research on Cancer International Agency for Research on Cancer
IFCPCThe International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy The International Federation of Cervical Pathology and ColposcopyThe examination of the cervix and vagina with a magnifying instrument called a colposcope, to check for abnormalities.
IMBIntermenstrual bleedingVaginal bleeding at any time other than during normal menstruation or following sexual intercourse. Intermenstrual bleeding
LASTLower Anogenital Squamous Terminology Lower anogenital squamous terminology
LBCLiquid based cytology(LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. Liquid-based cytology
LEEPLoop electrical excision procedureLoop electrical excision procedure Loop electrosurgical excision procedure
LCLaser-cone Carbon dioxide laser cone biopsy
LLETZLarge loop excision of the transformation zone Large loop excision of the transformation zone
LSILLow-grade squamous intraepithelial lesionThe low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) category is the morphological correlate of productive viral infection. It is to be used when the scientist/pathologist observes changes that would have been described as ‘HPV effect’ or ‘CIN 1’ in the previous Australian terminology and represents part of the previous ‘low-grade squamous epithelial abnormality’ category. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
MSACThe Australian Medical Services Advisory Committee The Australian Medical Services Advisory Committee
MSTMulti-disciplinary team Multi-disciplinary team
NCINational Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute
NCSPNational Cervical Screening ProgramA joint program of the Australian, state and territory governments. It aims to reduce morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, in a cost-effective manner through an organised approach to cervical screening. The program encourages women in the target population to have regular Pap smears. National Cervical Screening Program
NCSRNational Cancer Screening Register National cancer screening register
NETZNeedle Excision of the Transformation Zone Needle excisionStraight wire excision of the transformation zone (SWETZ) or needle excision of the transformation zone (NETZ). of the transformation zone
NHMRCNational Health and Medical Research Council National Health and Medical Research Council
Not HPV 16/18All other oncogenic HPV types oncogenic HPV types detected using routine HPV screening tests in lab All other oncogenic HPV types other than 16 and 18
NPVNegative predictive value (NPV) is the probability that a negative test result is a true negative Negative predictive value
PBACPharmaceuticals Benefits Advisory Committee Pharmaceuticals Benefits Advisory Committee
PCBPostcoital bleedingVaginal bleeding after intercourse Post-coital bleeding
PCRPolymerase Chain Reaction Polymerase chain reaction
PPVPositive predictive value Positive predictive value
PTLPreterm labour Preterm labour
RANZCOGThe Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
RCPARoyal College of Pathologists of Australasia Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia
SCCSquamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma
SILA squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells. Squamous intraepithelial lesion
SIRStandardised incidence rate Standardised incidence rate
SISCCASuperficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (previously termed 'Micro-invasive carcinoma') Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (previously termed micro-invasive carcinoma)
SWETZStraight wire excision of the transformation zone Straight wire excision of the transformation zone
TBSThe Bethesda System The Bethesda System
TZTransformation zoneThis region of the cervix where the columnar epithelium has been replaced and/or is being replaced by the new metaplastic squamous epithelium is referred to as the transformation zone. It corresponds to the area of cervix bound by the original squamocolumnar junction at the distal end and proximally by the furthest extent that squamous metaplasia has occurred as defined by the new squamocolumnar junction. In premenopausal women, the transformation zone is fully located on the ectocervix. After menopause through old age, the cervix shrinks with the decreasing levels of estrogen. Consequently, the transformation zone may move partially, and later fully, into the cervical canal.The transformation zone may be described as normal when it is composed of immature and/or mature squamous metaplasia along with intervening areas or islands of columnar epithelium, with no signs of cervical carcinogenesis. It is termed an abnormal or atypical transformation zone (ATZ) when evidence of cervical carcinogenesis such as dysplastic change is observed in the transformation zone. Identifying the transformation zone is of great importance in colposcopy, as almost all manifestations of cervical carcinogenesis occur in this zone. Transformation zone
VAINVaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia Vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia
Less than or equal to Less than or equal to
Greater than or equal to Greater than or equal to