Patient selection for surveillance colonoscopy following resection

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Background

The Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer updated in 2017, proposed that intensive follow-up for colorectal cancer (CRCColorectal cancer) should be considered for patients who have had potentially curable disease. The US Multi-Society Task Force on ColorectalReferring to the large bowel, comprising the colon and rectum. Cancer recommended that all patients who have undergone curative resection of either colon or rectal cancer should undergo surveillance colonoscopy.[1] A Cochrane review updated in 2016 concluded that, although intensive follow-up can detect recurrences earlier, resulting in more salvage surgery with curative intent, this was not associated with improved survival.[2] Harms related to intensive follow-up and salvage therapy were not well reported.

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Overview of evidence (non-systematic literature review)

No systematic reviews were undertaken for this topic. Practice points were based on selected evidence (see Guideline development process).

Risk factors for local recurrence following resection for colorectal cancer

Recent studies suggest that follow-up after CRCColorectal cancer resection could perhaps be customised according to a patient’s individual risk.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Importantly for colonoscopic surveillance, a number of studies have determined features of a primary CRCColorectal cancer, which increase the risk of local recurrence at the surgical anastomosis.[3][4][5][13][14] Anastomotic recurrence occurs far more often in rectal cancer patients than in colon cancer patients, and additional proctoscopy follow-up has been recommended by some for this reason.[1][5][15] Local recurrenceThe reappearance of cancer at a site that was previously treated and responded to therapy. is also more likely to occur in patients undergoing local excision (including transanal endoscopic microsurgery) of their rectal primary cancers. Unfortunately, some of these recurrences are associated with extra-colonic disease or local spread and are not curable.[3][16][17][18][19]Back to top

Risk factors for metachronous neoplasia following resection for colorectal cancer

Having developed one CRCColorectal cancer, patients are at risk for the development of metachronous polyps and cancers. Bouvier et al reported the incidence of metachronous cancer as being 1.8% at 5 years, 3.4% at 10 years, and 7.2% at 20 years with the greatest excess risk between 1 and 5 years post-operatively.[20] Some authors have reported that the presence of synchronous polyps or cancers at preoperative colonoscopy is a risk factor for metachronous CRCColorectal cancer[21][22][23][24][25] and for metachronous adenomatous polyps.[21][26] However, in several other studies including a large cancer registry based population-based study have failed to identify any link between synchronous adenomas and the development of subsequent metachronous CRCColorectal cancer.[20][23][27]

Metachronous and synchronous tumours are features of Lynch syndrome, previously called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).[28][29] A propensity for metachronous CRCs with a predilection for the proximal colon, and development of cancer at an early age, are well recognised characteristics of Lynch syndrome.[30]

Primary tumour location is a risk factor for the development of metachronous cancer. In a study of more than 500 CRCColorectal cancer patients from a cancer registry database, patients whose first cancer was located proximal to splenic flexure were found to be at twice the risk for developing a metachronous cancer compared to those with a first cancer in the distal colon.[13]

Thus, reported studies have disagreed about whether patients who have undergone CRCColorectal cancer resection can be stratified with regard to their risk of future development of metachronous polyps and cancers. Even in those studies where a positive predictive factor was identified, the strength of the association with the development of future colonic neoplasia was insufficiently strong to exclude patients without the factor from colonoscopic surveillance.

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Practice pointA recommendation on a subject that is outside the scope of the search strategy for the systematic review, based on expert opinion and formulated by a consensus process.Question mark transparent.png

Patients with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes should have surveillance colonoscopy performed post-operatively as per the Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer.

Practice pointA recommendation on a subject that is outside the scope of the search strategy for the systematic review, based on expert opinion and formulated by a consensus process.Question mark transparent.png

Other clinically high-risk patients should be considered for more frequent surveillance colonoscopy after surgery than would otherwise be recommended (e.g. initial post-operative colonoscopy at 1 year and then 1–3 yearly depending on personalised estimate of risk). These include patients:

  • whose initial diagnosis was made younger than age 40 years
  • with suspected but un-identified hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes
  • with multiple synchronous cancers or advanced adenomas at initial diagnosis.
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References

  1. 1.01.1 Kahi CJ, Boland CR, Dominitz JA, Giardiello FM, Johnson DA, Kaltenbach T, et al. Colonoscopy surveillance after colorectal cancer resection: recommendations of the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc 2016 Mar;83(3):489-98.e10 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26802191.
  2. Jeffery M, Hickey BE, Hider PN, See AM. Follow-up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Nov 24;11:CD002200 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884041.
  3. 3.03.13.2 Barillari P, Ramacciato G, Manetti G, Bovino A, Sammartino P, Stipa V. Surveillance of colorectal cancer: effectiveness of early detection of intraluminal recurrences on prognosis and survival of patients treated for cure. Dis ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. 1996 Apr;39(4):388-93 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8878497.
  4. 4.04.1 Chan CL, Bokey EL, Chapuis PH, Renwick AA, Dent OF. Local recurrence after curative resection for rectal cancer is associated with anterior position of the tumour. Br J Surg 2006 Jan;93(1):105-12 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16302179.
  5. 5.05.15.2 Manfredi S, Bouvier AM, Lepage C, Hatem C, Dancourt V, Faivre J. Incidence and patterns of recurrence after resection for cure of colonic cancer in a well defined population. Br J Surg 2006 Sep;93(9):1115-22 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16804870.
  6. Obrand DI, Gordon PH. Incidence and patterns of recurrence following curative resection for colorectal carcinoma. Dis ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. 1997 Jan;40(1):15-24 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9102255.
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  12. Mulder SA, Kranse R, Damhuis RA, Ouwendijk RJ, Kuipers EJ, van Leerdam ME. The incidence and risk factors of metachronous colorectal cancer: an indication for follow-up. Dis ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. 2012 May;55(5):522-31 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22513430.
  13. 13.013.1 Gervaz P, Bucher P, Neyroud-Caspar I, Soravia C, Morel P. Proximal location of colon cancer is a risk factor for development of metachronous colorectal cancer: a population-based study. Dis ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. 2005 Feb;48(2):227-32 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15711864.
  14. Kobayashi H, Mochizuki H, Sugihara K, Morita T, Kotake K, Teramoto T, et al. Characteristics of recurrence and surveillance tools after curative resection for colorectal cancer: a multicenter study. Surgery 2007 Jan;141(1):67-75 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17188169.
  15. Cone MM, Beck DE, Hicks TE, Rea JD, Whitlow CB, Vargas HD, et al. Timing of colonoscopy after resection for colorectal cancer: are we looking too soon? Dis ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. 2013 Nov;56(11):1233-6 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24104997.
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  17. Juhl G, Larson GM, Mullins R, Bond S, Polk HC Jr. Six-year results of annual colonoscopy after resection of colorectal cancer. World J Surg ;14(2):255-60; discussion 260-1 Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2327099.
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