Glossary and abbreviations

From Cancer Guidelines Wiki


Abbreviations

Abbreviation Term
ANAdvanced neoplasia (advanced adenoma or colorectal cancer) Advanced neoplasia (advanced adenoma or colorectal cancer)
ASPAdvanced serrated polyp Advanced serrated polyp
AGAAmerican Gastroenterological Association American Gastroenterological Association
ACPGBIAssociation of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
BMIBody mass index Body mass index
BPPSBoston bowel preparation scale Boston bowel preparation scale
BSGBritish Society of Gastroenterology British Society of Gastroenterology
CRCColorectal cancer ColorectalReferring to the large bowel, comprising the colon and rectum. cancer
CCRTGEConjoint Committee for the Recognition of Training in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Conjoint Committee for the Recognition of Training in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
CAConventional adenoma Conventional adenoma
DNADeoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid
DALMDysplasia associated lesion mass Dysplasia associated lesion mass
EMREndoscopic mucosal resection Endoscopic mucosal resection
ESDEndoscopic submucosal dissection Endoscopic submucosal dissection
EPoSEuropean Polyp Surveillance trials European PolypA small growth protruding from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the bowel. Surveillance trials
ESGEEuropean Society for Gastroenterology European Society for Gastroenterology
FICEFujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy Fujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy
GESAGastroenterological Society of Australia Gastroenterological Society of Australia
HGDHigh grade dysplasia High grade dysplasia
HRAHigh risk adenoma High risk adenoma
HDLHigh-density lipoprotein High-density lipoprotein
HPP/HPHyperplastic polyp Hyperplastic polyp
IDIndefinite dysplasia Indefinite dysplasia
IBDInflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease
KRASKirsten rat sarcoma Kirsten rat sarcoma
LSLLaterally spreading lesion/s Laterally spreading lesion/s
LGDLow grade dysplasia Low grade dysplasia
LRALow risk adenoma Low risk adenoma
MPMalignant polyp Malignant polyp
MAMetachronous adenoma Metachronous adenoma
MAAMetachronous advanced adenoma Metachronous advanced adenoma
MANMetachronous advanced neoplasia Metachronous advanced neoplasia
MNMetachronous neoplasia Metachronous neoplasia
MMRMismatch repair Mismatch repair 
NHMRCNational Health and Medical Research Council National Health and Medical Research Council
NPSNational Polyp Study National PolypA small growth protruding from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the bowel. Study
NAANon-advanced adenoma Non-advanced adenoma
OCOptical colonoscopy Optical colonoscopy
PEGPolyethylene glycol Polyethylene glycol 
PICOPopulation, intervention, comparison, outcome Population, intervention, comparison, outcome
PCPPrimary care physicians Primary care physicians
PSCPrimary sclerosing cholangitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis
RRRelative risk Relative risk
RANZCRRoyal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists
SPSerrated polyp Serrated polyp
SESSocioeconomic status Socioeconomic status
SIRStandardised incidence ratio Standardised incidence ratio
SMRStandardised mortality ratio Standardised mortality ratio
STAI-SState Trait Anxiety Inventory State Trait Anxiety Inventory
SMISubmucosal invasion Submucosal invasion
SCENICSurveillance for colorectal endoscopic neoplasia detection and management in inflammatory bowel disease patients: International Consensus recommendations Surveillance for colorectal endoscopic neoplasia detection and management in inflammatory bowel disease patients: International Consensus recommendations
SEERSurveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results
TSATraditional serrated adenoma Traditional serrated adenoma
TP53Tumour suppressor p53 Tumour suppressor p53
UCUlcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis
UKUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
USMTFUS Multi-Society Task Force US Multi-Society Task Force
USAUnited States of America United States of America
WLEWhite light endoscopy White light endoscopy
WASPWorkgroup serrAted polypS and Polyposis Workgroup serrAted polypS and Polyposis
WHOWorld Health Organization World Health Organization
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Glossary terms

Term Definition
Abdominoperineal resectionAn operation for rectal cancer. This involves removing part of the colon, rectum and anus, and creating a permanent colostomy. An operation for rectal cancer. This involves removing part of the colon, rectum and anus, and creating a permanent colostomy.
Absolute riskThe risk a subject has for developing the tested disease over a stated time period. The risk a subject has for developing the tested disease over a stated time period.
AdenocarcinomaA type of cancerous tumour that forms from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. A type of cancerous tumour that forms from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
Adenoma detection rate (ADR)The proportion of individuals undergoing a complete screening colonoscopy who have one or more adenomas, or polyps, detected. Variously defined according to context but most often defined as the proportion of patients aged 50 and over having screening colonoscopy found to have at least one adenomatous polyp. The proportion of individuals undergoing a complete screening colonoscopy who have one or more adenomas, or polyps, detected. Variously defined according to context but most often defined as the proportion of patients aged 50 and over having screening colonoscopy found to have at least one adenomatous polyp.
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC)A multifunctional tumour suppressor gene. Mutations in this gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis and contributes to many sporadic colorectal cancers. A multifunctional tumour suppressor gene. Mutations in this gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis and contributes to many sporadic colorectal cancers. 
Adjuvant therapyA treatment given with or shortly after another treatment to make it more effective. This usually refers to surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A treatment given with or shortly after another treatment to make it more effective. This usually refers to surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Advanced adenoma (AA)An adenoma that measures 10mm or more in size. Includes adenomatous polyps greater than or equal to 10 mm in size or with a significant villous component or with high-grade dysplasia. An adenoma that measures 10mm or more in size. Includes adenomatous polyps greater than or equal to 10 mm in size or with a significant villous component or with high-grade dysplasia.
Anterior resectionA surgical procedure to remove cancer in the rectum with the bowel being re-joined to leave a functioning anus. A surgical procedure to remove cancer in the rectum with the bowel being re-joined to leave a functioning anus.
BiopsyThe removal of a small sample of tissue from the body for examination under a microscope to help diagnose a disease. The removal of a small sample of tissue from the body for examination under a microscope to help diagnose a disease.
Bowel cancerCancer of the large bowel; also known as colorectal cancer, colon cancer or rectal cancer. Cancer of the large bowel; also known as colorectal cancer, colon cancer or rectal cancer.
Bowel preparationThe process of cleaning out the bowel before a test, scan or operation to allow the doctor to see the bowel more clearly. The process of cleaning out the bowel before a test, scan or operation to allow the doctor to see the bowel more clearly.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)A protein that may be found in the blood of a person with colorectal cancer. A protein that may be found in the blood of a person with colorectal cancer.
ChemoprophylaxisAdministration of a medication or drug to prevent disease. Administration of a medication or drug to prevent disease.
ColectomyThe surgical removal of all or part of the colon. The affected areas of the colon are cut out and the two ends are joined back together. Colectomies are named for the part removed. They include: right and left hemicolectomies and transverse, sigmoid, subtotal and total colectomies. The surgical removal of all or part of the colon. The affected areas of the colon are cut out and the two ends are joined back together. Colectomies are named for the part removed. They include: right and left hemicolectomies and transverse, sigmoid, subtotal and total colectomies.
ColonThe main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The main part of the large bowel, which absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food (solid waste). Its four parts are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon.
ColonoscopyAn examination of the large bowel using a camera on a flexible tube, which is passed through the anus. An examination of the large bowel using a camera on a flexible tube, which is passed through the anus.
ColorectalReferring to the large bowel, comprising the colon and rectum. Referring to the large bowel, comprising the colon and rectum.
Confidence interval (CI)A measure that quantifies the uncertainty in measurement. When reported as 95% CI, it is the range of values within which we can be 95% sure that the true value for the whole population lies. A measure that quantifies the uncertainty in measurement. When reported as 95% CI, it is the range of values within which we can be 95% sure that the true value for the whole population lies.
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) An endoscopy procedure that uses a specialised endoscope capable of visualising the mucosal layer of the colon at very high magnification.
Consensus-based recommendationA recommendation formulated in the absence of quality evidence, after a systematic review of the evidence was conducted and failed to identify admissible evidence on the clinical question. A recommendation formulated in the absence of quality evidence, after a systematic review of the evidence was conducted and failed to identify admissible evidence on the clinical question.
CT colonographyAlso known as virtual colonoscopy, a medical imaging procedure that uses low dose radiation computerised tomography (CT) scanning to obtain an interior view of the colon (the large bowel) that is otherwise only seen with a more invasive procedure such as colonoscopy where an endoscope is inserted into the rectum and passed through the entire colon. Also known as virtual colonoscopy, a medical imaging procedure that uses low dose radiation computerised tomography (CT) scanning to obtain an interior view of the colon (the large bowel) that is otherwise only seen with a more invasive procedure such as colonoscopy where an endoscope is inserted into the rectum and passed through the entire colon.
CT scanA computerised tomography (CT) scan, in which x-ray equipment is used to create detailed digital images, or scans, of areas inside the body. A computerised tomography (CT) scan, in which x-ray equipment is used to create detailed digital images, or scans, of areas inside the body.
Distant metastasisCancer that has spread from the original (primary) tumour to distant organs or distant lymph nodes. Cancer that has spread from the original (primary) tumour to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.
Electronic chromoendoscopy (EC)An endoscopic procedure using a specialised endoscope that provides a detailed contrast enhancement image of the musical surface of the colon, and includes NBI, FICE or i-SCAN.  An endoscopic procedure using a specialised endoscope that provides a detailed contrast enhancement image of the musical surface of the colon, and includes NBI, FICEFujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy or i-SCAN.
Evidence-based recommendationA recommendation formulated after a systematic review of the evidence, indicating supporting references. A recommendation formulated after a systematic review of the evidence, indicating supporting references.
Faecal occult blood testA test that can detect microscopic amounts of blood in stools. The most common type of FOBT is the immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT), which directly detect haemoglobin using antibodies specific for the globin moiety of human haemoglobin. A test that can detect microscopic amounts of blood in stools. The most common type of FOBT is the immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT), which directly detect haemoglobin using antibodies specific for the globin moiety of human haemoglobin.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)An autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the colon. An autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the colon.
Familial syndromesGenetic disorders in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predispose a person to developing cancer, particularly at an early age. Genetic disorders in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predispose a person to developing cancer, particularly at an early age.
First degree relative (FDR)An individual’s full siblings, parents or children. An individual’s full siblings, parents or children.
Flexible sigmoidoscopyA procedure to examine the inner lining of the rectum and lower portion of the colon using a flexible tube, usually a colonoscope (unlike the colonoscopy that examines the entirety of the colon). The tube is approximately 60 cm long, has a small light and a camera attached at the tip of the tube. A procedure to examine the inner lining of the rectum and lower portion of the colon using a flexible tube, usually a colonoscope (unlike the colonoscopy that examines the entirety of the colon). The tube is approximately 60 cm long, has a small light and a camera attached at the tip of the tube.
Full spectrum endoscopy (FUSE)An endoscope with a viewing angle of 330°.  An endoscope with a viewing angle of 330°.
Functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID)Also known as functional gastrointestinal disorders. A group of bowel disorders which are characterised by persistent and recurring gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of demonstrable organic pathology.  Also known as functional gastrointestinal disorders. A group of bowel disorders which are characterised by persistent and recurring gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of demonstrable organic pathology.
General practitioner (GP)A medical professional who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to a wide range of patients. A medical professional who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to a wide range of patients.
Hazard ratio (HR)A measure of how often a particular event happens in one group compared to how often it happens in another group, over time. In cancer research, hazard ratios are often used in clinical trials to measure survival at any particular moment in a group of patients who have been given a specific treatment or a placebo. A measure of how often a particular event happens in one group compared to how often it happens in another group, over time. In cancer research, hazard ratios are often used in clinical trials to measure survival at any particular moment in a group of patients who have been given a specific treatment or a placebo.
ImagingUsing scans, including nuclear medicine, to create images of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention. Using scans, including nuclear medicine, to create images of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.
IncidenceAn epidemiological term reporting number of new cases in a population within a specified period. An epidemiological term reporting number of new cases in a population within a specified period.
Interval cancer (IC)A cancer whose presence is diagnosed in the time between scheduled screening tests or surveillance procedures. A cancer whose presence is diagnosed in the time between scheduled screening tests or surveillance procedures.
Laparoscopic approachA procedure where small multiple incisions are made to perform an operation, rather than making a large open incision. A procedure where small multiple incisions are made to perform an operation, rather than making a large open incision.
Local recurrenceThe reappearance of cancer at a site that was previously treated and responded to therapy. The reappearance of cancer at a site that was previously treated and responded to therapy.
MAPK pathwayA chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus. A chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNADeoxyribonucleic acid in the nucleus.
Metabolic syndromeMetabolic syndrome is a collection of conditions that often occur together and increase the risk of diabetes, stroke and heart disease. The main components of metabolic syndrome include obesity, high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, low levels of HDL cholesterol and insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a collection of conditions that often occur together and increase the risk of diabetes, stroke and heart disease. The main components of metabolic syndrome include obesity, high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, low levels of HDLHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance.
MetastaticCancer that has spread from the primary site of origin (where it started) into different area(s) of the body. Cancer that has spread from the primary site of origin (where it started) into different area(s) of the body.
mut-L homolog 1 (MLH1)A gene commonly associated with Lynch syndrome and functions in repairing DNA mismatches. A gene commonly associated with Lynch syndrome and functions in repairing DNADeoxyribonucleic acid mismatches.
Narrow band imaging (NBI)A specialised type of endoscopy that uses specific blue and green wavelengths of light to enhance visualisation of the mucosal layer of the colon. A specialised type of endoscopy that uses specific blue and green wavelengths of light to enhance visualisation of the mucosal layer of the colon.
National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP)An Australian screening program that aims to reduce illness and death from bowel cancer through early detection or prevention of the disease. An Australian screening program that aims to reduce illness and death from bowel cancer through early detection or prevention of the disease.
Negative predictive value (NPV)The probability that a subject with a negative screening test result truly does not have the condition for which they are being tested. The probability that a subject with a negative screening test result truly does not have the condition for which they are being tested.
Odds ratio (OR)A comparison of the odds (probability) of something happening in one group with the odds of it happening in another. A comparison of the odds (probability) of something happening in one group with the odds of it happening in another.
PathologyA medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues, for instance from laboratory examination of samples of body tissue. A medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues, for instance from laboratory examination of samples of body tissue.
Peri-operativeMeasures or interventions used at or around the time of an operation to improve patient outcomes. Measures or interventions used at or around the time of an operation to improve patient outcomes.
PolypA small growth protruding from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the bowel. A small growth protruding from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the bowel.
PolypectomyThe removal of polyps from the bowel. The removal of polyps from the bowel.
Positive predictive value (PPV)A measure for the probability that a subject with a positive screening result truly has the disease for which they are being tested. A measure for the probability that a subject with a positive screening result truly has the disease for which they are being tested.
Practice pointA recommendation on a subject that is outside the scope of the search strategy for the systematic review, based on expert opinion and formulated by a consensus process. A recommendation on a subject that is outside the scope of the search strategy for the systematic review, based on expert opinion and formulated by a consensus process.
ProctocolectomyA surgical procedure to remove the colon and rectum. A surgical procedure to remove the colon and rectum.
Randomised controlled trial (RCT)A study in which people are allocated at random (by chance alone) to receive one of several clinical interventions. One of these interventions is the standard of comparison or control. A study in which people are allocated at random (by chance alone) to receive one of several clinical interventions. One of these interventions is the standard of comparison or control.
Rectal endoscopic ultrasound An imaging procedure where a probe is inserted into the rectum and high frequency sound waves (ultrasound waves) are generated to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures.
RectumThe final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus. The final section of the large bowel, ending at the anus.
Second degree relative (SDR)Someone who shares 25% of a person’s genes, such as uncles, aunts, grandparents, half-siblings Someone who shares 25% of a person’s genes, such as uncles, aunts, grandparents, half-siblings
VillosityThe state of being villous, a histopathological feature of some tubular adenomas. Villous adenoma is a type of polyp found in the colon or rectum that appear as a cauliflower-like mass. The state of being villous, a histopathological feature of some tubular adenomas. Villous adenoma is a type of polyp found in the colon or rectum that appear as a cauliflower-like mass.
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