Hi Teresa, Thanks for your response. I gather your literature search has been updated to search beyond 2003 as I now see references to more recent studies e.g. under Carotenoids there is a 2010 reference to Nutr Cancer 2010;62(3):322-8. Interestingly COSA's latest (Jul 2011) Cancer Forum issue has an article "After the storm: nutrition after cancer treatment" stating "...while treatment with β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality." referencing yet another source, this time the Journal of American Medical Association. 2007; 297(8):842-857. - Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gludd L, Simonetti R, Gludd C, et al. If you read the reference it states "....In 47 low-bias trials with 180 938 participants, the antioxidant supplements significantly increased mortality (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08)". It's curious that a data finding in trials with such a large sample (180,000+) of significantly increased mortality is so diluted in the summary to say "Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality.", I think a statistician would impart greater confidence in the data, but alas we live in a world full of uncertainty.